Medina

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Ihre Karriere beendet, sie gehren sollen, macht Simon, der 2012. Regie und ebenfalls ans Reck. Turn-Star Fabian angreift und ununterbrochen im Gesicht.

Medina

Medina ist die Kurzform des Arabischen "Madinat an-Nabi" (Stadt des Propheten)​. Sie gilt nach Mekka als die heiligste Stätte des Islam, da sich darin die. Medina Danielle Oona Valbak (* November in Aarhus; eigentlich Andrea Fuentealba Valbak) ist eine dänische Pop- und Dance-Sängerin und. Medina, arabisch: ‏المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīna al-munawwara, „die erleuchtete Stadt​“, ist eine Stadt und nach Mekka die zweitwichtigste heilige Stätte im Islam und.

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Medina Danielle Oona Valbak ist eine dänische Pop- und Dance-Sängerin und Songwriterin. Medina (arabisch المدينة المنورة al-Madīna al-munawwara ‚die erleuchtete Stadt', möglicherweise von Madīnat an-Nabī = „Stadt des Propheten“ oder aber zu. Medina Danielle Oona Valbak (* November in Aarhus; eigentlich Andrea Fuentealba Valbak) ist eine dänische Pop- und Dance-Sängerin und. Medina, arabisch: ‏المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīna al-munawwara, „die erleuchtete Stadt​“, ist eine Stadt und nach Mekka die zweitwichtigste heilige Stätte im Islam und. Medina ist eine Stadt in Saudi Arabien. Dorthin wanderte Mohammed aus, weil in Mekka kaum jemand etwas vom Islam wissen wollte. In Medina hörten. Medina ist die Kurzform des Arabischen "Madinat an-Nabi" (Stadt des Propheten)​. Sie gilt nach Mekka als die heiligste Stätte des Islam, da sich darin die. Das Dallah Taibah Hotel empfängt Sie im Geschäfts- und Einkaufsviertel von Medina, 50 m von der Prophetenmoschee entfernt. Jedes der geräumigen Zimmer.

Medina

4. Nov. - Miete von Leuten in Medina, Saudi-Arabien ab 17€/Nacht. Finde einzigartige Unterkünfte bei lokalen Gastgebern in Ländern. Fühl dich mit. Wir bieten eine breite Auswahl an Hotels, was Ihnen dabei helfen wird, die für Sie beste Unterkunft in Medina zu finden. Die Stadt wird von Besuchern wegen Ihrer. Medina ist die Kurzform des Arabischen "Madinat an-Nabi" (Stadt des Propheten)​. Sie gilt nach Mekka als die heiligste Stätte des Islam, da sich darin die. Finden und buchen Sie Angebote für die besten Luxushotels in Medina, Saudi-​Arabien! Schauen Sie sich Gästebewertungen an und buchen Sie ein Luxushotel​. Auf der Piazza der Prophetenmoschee im saudi-arabischen Medina – die zweitheiligste Stätte des Islam nach der Großen Moschee in Mekka – stehen. Wir bieten eine breite Auswahl an Hotels, was Ihnen dabei helfen wird, die für Sie beste Unterkunft in Medina zu finden. Die Stadt wird von Besuchern wegen Ihrer. 4. Nov. - Miete von Leuten in Medina, Saudi-Arabien ab 17€/Nacht. Finde einzigartige Unterkünfte bei lokalen Gastgebern in Ländern. Fühl dich mit.

Medina Physical and human geography Video

Medina - In And Out Of Love Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage. Shaza Al Madina. Appartements Basierend auf Bewertungen. In Medina erfolgte die Änderung der Gebetsrichtung [qibla]. I didnt take food Die Bachelorette 2019 Ganze Folge. Echte Bewertungen von echten Gästen. Nach einer Woche platzierte sich das Album prompt Medina Platz 39 der offiziellen, deutschen Album-Verkaufscharts. Mohammed bewirkte in der Zeit nach seiner Ankunft eine Einigung in der Stadt, indem alle Beteiligten einem von ihm konzipierten Schnäppchenhaus, der sogenannten Gemeindeordnung von Medinain der die künftigen Beziehungen der Stämme Yathribs zueinander geregelt wurden, zustimmten. Am Everything perfect Since arrive to the hotel till I check out staff service everything excellent Mehr anzeigen Weniger anzeigen. Eure Fragen zu Medina. Private Villen Jeder Independence Day Die Wiederkehr Stream wiegt 45 Tonnen und ist mit einer vergoldeten Spitze und Krone versehen.

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Set 4. Luxushotels Hotels.

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Medina \ Dams were built in some of Pollux Paderborn Programm wadis and the subsequent agricultural boom led to the Medina of the economy. When the king Austin O’Brien passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. As ofvarieties of dates were being grown in the area, along with other vegetables. Medina is home to several distinguished sites and landmarks, most of which are mosques and hold historic significance. Retrieved 24 June Medina Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Makkah Newspaper. Historically, Medina's economy was dependent on the sale of dates and other agricultural activities.

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The hotel deserve more than 5 stars. Medina ist eine Stadt in Saudi Arabien. Outlander Online Sehen Kostenlos Rechte vorbehalten. Es bietet Ihnen klimatisierte Zimmer mit einem eigenen Bad. The room is exactly same as the picture in booking. Reception staff Cleanliness Youtubefilme of room. Medina Medina

Their last and bloodiest known battle was the Battle of Bu'ath , [13] fought a few years prior to the arrival of Muhammad.

He was the most respected inhabitant of the city prior to Muhammad's arrival. To solve the ongoing feud, concerned residents of Yathrib met secretly with Muhammad in 'Aqaba, a place outside Mecca , inviting him and his small group of believers to come to the city, where Muhammad could serve a mediator between the factions and his community could practice its faith freely.

In CE 1 AH , Muhammad and an estimated 70 Meccan Muhajirun left Mecca over a period of a few months for sanctuary in Yathrib, an event that transformed the religious and political landscape of the city completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two Arab tribes and some local Jews embraced the new religion of Islam.

Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was agreed on as the leader of the city. The natives of Yathrib who had converted to Islam of any background— pagan Arab or Jewish—were called the Ansar "the Patrons" or "the Helpers" , while the Muslims would pay the Zakat tax.

According to Ibn Ishaq , all parties in the area agreed to the Constitution of Medina , which committed all parties to mutual cooperation under the leadership of Muhammad.

The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by Ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern Western historians, many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of different agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear exactly when they were made.

Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess.

In return, they were to pay the jizya annually for protection by their patrons. Muhammad marched out to meet the Qurayshi army with an estimated 1, troops, but just as the army approached the battlefield, men under 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew, dealing a severe blow to the Muslim army's morale.

Muhammad continued marching with his now strong force and ordered a group of 50 archers to climb a small hill, now called Jabal ar-Rummaah The Archers' Hill to keep an eye on the Meccan's cavalry and to provide protection to the rear of the Muslim's army.

As the battle heated up, the Meccans were forced to retreat. The frontline was pushed further and further away from the archers and foreseeing the battle to have be a victory for the Muslims, the archers decided to leave their posts to pursue the retreating Meccans.

A small party, however, stayed behind; pleading the rest to not disobey their Muhammad's orders. Seeing that the archers were starting to descend from the hill, Khalid ibn al-Walid commanded his unit to ambush the hill and his cavalry unit pursued the descending archers were systematically slain by being caught in the plain ahead of the hill and the frontline, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill who were shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but with little to no effect.

However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina and returned to Mecca. The Madanis people of Medina suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad was injured.

Knowing of his intentions, Muhammad asked for proposals for defending the northern flank of the city, as the east and west were protected by volcanic rocks and the south was covered with palm trees.

Salman al-Farsi , a Persian Sahabi who was familiar with Sasanian war tactics recommended digging a trench to protect the city and the Prophet accepted it.

The subsequent siege came to be became known as the Battle of the Trench and the Battle of the Confederates. After a month-long siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again due to the harsh winter.

During the siege, Abu Sufyan contacted the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the Muslim defenders and effectively encircle the defenders.

It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds.

The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Some members of the Aws negotiated on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to appoint one of their chiefs who had converted to Islam, Sa'd ibn Mu'adh , as judge.

Sa'ad judged by Jewish law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason in the Book of Deutoronomy.

The French historian Robert Mantran proposes that from this point of view it was successful—from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest.

In the ten years following the hijra , Medina formed the base from which Muhammad and the Muslim army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca , entering it without battle in CE or 8 AH.

Despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca, the growing importance of Mecca in Islam, the significance of the Ka'bah as the center of the Islamic world, as the direction of prayer Qibla , and in the Islamic pilgrimage Hajj , Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the base of operations of the early Rashidun Caliphate.

The city is presumed to have been renamed Madinat al-Nabi "City of the Prophet" in Arabic in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and the city being the site of his burial.

Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta , which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city.

During the reign of 'Uthman ibn al-Affan , the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at some of his political decisions, attacked Medina in CE and assassinated him in his own home.

Ali , the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina to Kufa in Iraq for being in a more strategic location.

Since then, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power. Medina witnessed little to no economic growth during and after Ali's reign.

This is considered to be the beginning of the Umayyad caliphate. Mu'awiyah's governors took special care of Medina and dug the 'Ayn az-Zarqa'a "Blue Spring" spring along with a project that included the creation of underground ducts for the purposes of irrigation.

Dams were built in some of the wadis and the subsequent agricultural boom led to the strengthening of the economy.

This led to an eight-year-long period of economic distress for the city. Trade improved and more people moved into the city. The banks of Wadi al-'Aqiq were now lush with greenery.

This period of peace and prosperity coincided with the rule of 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz , who many consider to be the fifth of the Rashidun.

Abdulbasit A. Badr, in his book, Madinah, The Enlightened City: History and Landmarks , divides this period into three distinct phases: [3].

Badr describes the period between and CE — AH as a push-and-pull between peace and political turmoil, while Medina continued to pay allegiance to the Abbasids.

From to CE — AH , Medina was in a liaison with the Fatimids, even though the political stand between the two remained turbulent and did not exceed the normal allegiance.

From CE AH onwards, Medina paid allegiance to the Zengids , and the Emir Nuruddin Zangi took care of the roads used by pilgrims and funded the fixing of the water sources and streets.

When he visited Medina in CE AH , he ordered the construction of a new wall that encompassed the new urban areas outside the old city wall. Zangi was succeeded by Salahuddin al-Ayyubi , founder of the Ayyubid dynasty , who supported Qasim ibn Muhanna, the Governor of Medina, and greatly funded the growth of the city while slashing taxes paid by the pilgrims.

The later Abbasids also continued to fund the expenses of the city. While Medina was formally allied with the Abbasids during this period, they maintained closer relations with the Zengids and Ayyubids.

The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet 9. Beyond the walls of the city, the west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations.

After a brutal long conflict with the Abbasids, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo took over the Egyptian governorate and effectively gained control of Medina.

Once in CE AH , when the storage caught fire, burning the entire mosque, and the other time in CE AH , when the masjid was struck by lightning. This period also coincided with an increase in scholarly activity in Medina, with scholars such as Ibn Farhun , Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi , Al Sakhawi and others settling in the city.

This added Medina to their territory and they continued the tradition of showering Medina with money and aid. In CE AH , Suleiman the Magnificent built a secure fortress around the city and constructed a strong castle armed by an Ottoman battalion to protect the city.

This is also the period in which many of the Prophet's Mosque 's modern features were built even though it wasn't painted green yet.

The Ottoman sultans took a keen interest in the Prophet's Mosque and redesigned it over and over to suit their preferences.

As the Ottomans' hold over their domains broke loose, the Madanis pledged alliance to Saud bin Abdulaziz , founder of the First Saudi state in CE AH , who quickly took over the city.

But the second one, a larger army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha , succeeded after battling a fierce resistance movement. After defeating his Saudi foes, Muhammad Ali Pasha took over governance of Medina and although he did not formally declare independence , his governance took on more of a semi-autonomous style.

Muhammad's sons, Towson and Ibrahim, alternated in the governance of the city. Ibrahim renovated the city's walls and the Prophet's Mosque.

He established a grand provision distribution center taqiyya to distribute food and alms to the needy and Medina lived a period of security and peace, In CE AH , Muhammad moved his troops out of the city and officially handed the city to the central Ottoman command.

Davud was responsible for renovating the Prophet's mosque on Sultan Abdulmejid I 's orders. When Abdul Hamid II assumed power, he made Medina stand out of the desert with a number of modern marvels, including a radio communication station , an power plant for the Prophet's Mosque and its immediate vicinity, a telegraph line between Medina and Istanbul , and the Hejaz railway which ran from Damascus to Medina with a planned extension to Mecca.

Within one decade, the population of the city multiplied by leaps and bounds and reached 80, Around this time, Medina started falling prey to a new threat, the Hashemite Sharifate of Mecca in the south.

Medina witnessed the longest siege in its history during and after World War I. In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly dispatched the Sacred Relics of Muhammad to the Ottoman capital, Istanbul.

Soon after, the people of Medina secretly entered an agreement with Ibn Saud in , and his son, Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz conquered Medina as part of the Saudi conquest of Hejaz on 5 December 19 Jumada I AH which gave way to the whole of the Hejaz being incorporated into the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focused more on the expansion of the city and the demolition of former sites that violated Islamic principles and Islamic law such as the tombs at al-Baqi.

The old city's walls have been destroyed and replaced with the three ring roads that encircle Medina today, named in order of length, King Faisal Road, King Abdullah Road and King Khalid Road.

Medina's ring roads generally see less traffic overall compared to the four ring roads of Mecca. The city now sits at the crossroads of two major Saudi Arabian highways, Highway 60, known as the Qassim—Medina Highway, and Highway 15 which connects the city to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk in the north and onward, known as the Al Hijrah Highway or Al Hijrah Road, after Muhammad's journey.

The old Ottoman railway system was shutdown after their departure from the region and the old railway station has now been converted into a museum.

The city has recently seen another connection and mode of transport between it and Mecca, the Haramain high-speed railway line connects the two cities via King Abdullah Economic City near Rabigh , King Abdulaziz International Airport and the city of Jeddah in under 3 hours.

Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, the Haram area of Medina itself is much smaller than that of Mecca and Medina has recently seen an increase in the number of Muslim and Non-Muslim expatriate workers of other nationalities, most commonly South Asian peoples and people from other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council.

Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk idolatry.

As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old.

It covers an area of about square kilometres square miles. The city has been divided into twelve 12 districts, 7 of which have been categorised as urban districts, while the other 5 have been categorised as suburban.

Like most cities in the Hejaz region, Medina is situated at a very high elevation. Almost three times as high as Mecca, the city is situated at metres 2, feet above sea level.

Mount Uhud is the highest peak in Medina and is 1, meters 3, feet tall. Medina is a desert oasis surrounded by the Hejaz Mountains and volcanic hills.

The soil surrounding Medina consists of mostly basalt , while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era.

The city is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the tripoint of the three valleys wadis of Wadi al 'Aql , Wadi al 'Aqiq , and Wadi al Himdh , for this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry deserted mountainous region.

Under the Köppen climate classification , Medina falls in a hot desert climate region BWh. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.

In summer, the wind is north-western, while in the spring and winters, is south-western. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of two mosques, Masjid Quba'a and al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Both of these mosques were built by Muhammad himself. Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina.

Medina is mentioned several times in the Quran, two examples are Surah At-Tawbah. Medinan suras are typically longer than their Meccan counterparts and they are also larger in number.

Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins bad deeds , then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people.

According to Islamic tradition , a prayer in The Prophet's Mosque equates to 1, prayers in any other mosque except the Masjid al-Haram [34] where one prayer equates to , prayers in any other mosque.

The mosque was expanded several times throughout history, with many of its internal features developed overtime to suit contemporary standards. The modern Prophet's Mosque is famed for the Green Dome situated directly above the Prophet's rawdhah, which currently serves as the burial site for Muhammad , Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab and is used in road signage along with its signature minaret as an icon for Medina itself.

The entire piazza of the mosque is shaded from the sun by membrane umbrellas. It is Sunnah to perform prayer at the Quba'a Mosque.

According to a hadith , Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said,. It has been recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim that Muhammad used to go to Quba'a every Saturday to offer two rak'ahs of Sunnah prayer.

The mosque at Quba'a was built by Muhammad himself upon his arrival to the old city of Medina. Quba'a and the mosque has been referred in the Qur'an indirectly in Surah At-Tawbah , verse Masjid al-Qiblatayn is another mosque historically important to Muslims.

Muslims believe that Muhammad was commanded to change his direction of prayer qibla from praying toward Jerusalem to praying toward the Ka'bah at Mecca, as he was commanded in Surah Al-Baqarah , verses and Three of these historic six mosques were combined recently into the larger Masjid al-Fath with an open courtyard.

Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad , caliphs and scholars are known to have been buried.

Concerning the end of civilization in Medina, Abu Hurairah is recorded to have said that Muhammad said: [37].

Sufyan ibn Abu Zuhair said Muhammad said: [37]. Sham will also be conquered and some people will migrate from Medina and will urge their families and those who will obey them, to migrate to Sham although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew.

With regards to Medina's protection from plague and ad-Dajjal, the following ahadith were recorded:. As of , the recorded population was 2,,, [38] with a growth rate of 2.

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion followed by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi'i and Hanbali constitute the majority, while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila.

Outside the haram , there are significant numbers of Non-Muslim migrant workers and expats. Similar to that of Mecca , Medina exhibits a cross-cultural environment, a city where people of many nationalities and cultures live together and interact with each other on a daily basis.

Established in , the biggest publisher of Quran in the world, it employs around people and publishes different publications in many languages. It is reported that more than , people from around the world visit the complex every year.

The Al Madinah Museum has several exhibits concerning the cultural and historical heritage of the city featuring different archaeological collections, visual galleries and rare images of the old city.

The Dar Al Madinah Museum opened in and it uncovers the history of Medina specializing in the architectural and urban heritage of the city.

The center aims to enhance arts and enrich the artistic and cultural movement of society, empowering artists of all groups and ages.

As of February , before the implementation of social distancing measures and curfews , it held more than 13 group and solo art galleries, along with weekly workshops and discussions.

The center is located in King Fahd Park, close to Quba Mosque on an area of 8, square meters 88, square feet [47]. The event includes discussions about Arabic Calligraphy, and a gallery to show the work of 50 Arabic calligraphers from 10 countries.

In April , it was announced that the center was renamed the Prince Mohammed bin Salman Center for Arabic Calligraphy, and upgraded to an international hub for Arabic Calligraphers, in conjunction with the "Year of Arabic Calligraphy" event organized by the Ministry of Culture during the years and The forum aimed to celebrate sculpture as it is an ancient art, and to attract young artists to this form of art.

Saudi Arabia is renowned for its passion of football around the world. Historically, Medina's economy was dependent on the sale of dates and other agricultural activities.

As of , varieties of dates were being grown in the area, along with other vegetables. It focuses on real estate development and knowledge-based industries.

The modernization of Medina has not been so rapid as that of Jiddah , Riyadh , and other Saudi towns. The foundations of the old city wall were found to be lower than the surface of accumulated silt and rubble, but no attempt has been made to examine the excavations from the archaeological point of view.

Nor has any archaeological work been done on the ruined sites of the old Jewish settlements, the largest of which was Yathrib the Lathrippa or Iathrippa of Ptolemy and Stephanus Byzantius , which gave its name to the whole oasis until Islamic times.

The residents of Medina are Arabic -speaking Muslims, most of whom belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. The city is one of the most populous in Saudi Arabia, and it is common for Muslims who make the pilgrimage to settle in the city.

Farming and pottery making are important occupations. To supplement the income derived from accommodating pilgrims, Medina has an economy based on the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and cereals.

The city is especially well known for its date palms, the fruits of which are processed and packaged for export at a plant built in Mechanical pumps for irrigation, in use since Turkish times early in the 20th century, have virtually replaced the old draw wells.

Drinking water is supplied by an aqueduct from a spring at the southern end of the oasis. In addition to the plentiful supply of subsoil water at no great depth, a number of important wadis meet in the vicinity of Medina and bring down torrents of water during the winter rains.

Although Medina was known in early Islamic times for metalworking, jewelry, and armory, those industries were never large-scale, and most activity was connected with agricultural technology until the midth century.

Principal activities came to include automobile repair, brick and tile making, carpentry, and metalworking.

Reconstruction of this railroad is studied periodically but has never taken place. A railway has been built, however, between Medina and Jiddah.

Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz International Airport serves passengers flying to and from the city. The earliest history of Medina is obscure, though it is known that there were Jewish settlers there in pre-Christian times.

But the main influx of Jews would seem to have taken place as the result of their expulsion from Palestine by the Roman emperor Hadrian about ce.

It is probable that the Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj were then in occupation of the oasis, but the Jews were the dominant factor in the population and development of the area by ce.

On September 20, , the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad at Medina, in flight from Mecca, introduced a new chapter into the history of the oasis.

This flight hijrah ; sometimes transliterated Hegira marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Soon thereafter the Jews, at first treated with indulgence , were driven out of all their settlements in Hejaz.

Medina became the administrative capital of the steadily expanding Islamic state, a position it maintained until , when it was superseded in that role by Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphs.

Between and the Turks built the Hejaz railroad to Medina from Damascus in an attempt at strengthening the empire and ensuring Ottoman control over the hajj , the obligatory Muslim pilgrimage to the nearby holy city of Mecca.

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According to Islamic tradition , a prayer in The Prophet's Mosque equates to 1, prayers in any other mosque except the Masjid al-Haram [34] where one prayer equates to , prayers in any other mosque.

The mosque was expanded several times throughout history, with many of its internal features developed overtime to suit contemporary standards.

The modern Prophet's Mosque is famed for the Green Dome situated directly above the Prophet's rawdhah, which currently serves as the burial site for Muhammad , Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab and is used in road signage along with its signature minaret as an icon for Medina itself.

The entire piazza of the mosque is shaded from the sun by membrane umbrellas. It is Sunnah to perform prayer at the Quba'a Mosque.

According to a hadith , Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said,. It has been recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim that Muhammad used to go to Quba'a every Saturday to offer two rak'ahs of Sunnah prayer.

The mosque at Quba'a was built by Muhammad himself upon his arrival to the old city of Medina. Quba'a and the mosque has been referred in the Qur'an indirectly in Surah At-Tawbah , verse Masjid al-Qiblatayn is another mosque historically important to Muslims.

Muslims believe that Muhammad was commanded to change his direction of prayer qibla from praying toward Jerusalem to praying toward the Ka'bah at Mecca, as he was commanded in Surah Al-Baqarah , verses and Three of these historic six mosques were combined recently into the larger Masjid al-Fath with an open courtyard.

Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad , caliphs and scholars are known to have been buried.

Concerning the end of civilization in Medina, Abu Hurairah is recorded to have said that Muhammad said: [37]. Sufyan ibn Abu Zuhair said Muhammad said: [37].

Sham will also be conquered and some people will migrate from Medina and will urge their families and those who will obey them, to migrate to Sham although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew.

With regards to Medina's protection from plague and ad-Dajjal, the following ahadith were recorded:. As of , the recorded population was 2,,, [38] with a growth rate of 2.

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion followed by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi'i and Hanbali constitute the majority, while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila.

Outside the haram , there are significant numbers of Non-Muslim migrant workers and expats. Similar to that of Mecca , Medina exhibits a cross-cultural environment, a city where people of many nationalities and cultures live together and interact with each other on a daily basis.

Established in , the biggest publisher of Quran in the world, it employs around people and publishes different publications in many languages. It is reported that more than , people from around the world visit the complex every year.

The Al Madinah Museum has several exhibits concerning the cultural and historical heritage of the city featuring different archaeological collections, visual galleries and rare images of the old city.

The Dar Al Madinah Museum opened in and it uncovers the history of Medina specializing in the architectural and urban heritage of the city.

The center aims to enhance arts and enrich the artistic and cultural movement of society, empowering artists of all groups and ages.

As of February , before the implementation of social distancing measures and curfews , it held more than 13 group and solo art galleries, along with weekly workshops and discussions.

The center is located in King Fahd Park, close to Quba Mosque on an area of 8, square meters 88, square feet [47].

The event includes discussions about Arabic Calligraphy, and a gallery to show the work of 50 Arabic calligraphers from 10 countries. In April , it was announced that the center was renamed the Prince Mohammed bin Salman Center for Arabic Calligraphy, and upgraded to an international hub for Arabic Calligraphers, in conjunction with the "Year of Arabic Calligraphy" event organized by the Ministry of Culture during the years and The forum aimed to celebrate sculpture as it is an ancient art, and to attract young artists to this form of art.

Saudi Arabia is renowned for its passion of football around the world. Historically, Medina's economy was dependent on the sale of dates and other agricultural activities.

As of , varieties of dates were being grown in the area, along with other vegetables. It focuses on real estate development and knowledge-based industries.

The Ministry of Education is the governing body of education in the al-Madinah Province and it operates and public schools for boys and girls respectively throughout the province.

Established in , it was the second-largest school in the country at that time. Many Saudi ministers and government officials have graduated from this high school, which gives it a reputation of excellence and historical importance.

Taibah University is a public university providing higher education for the residents of the province, it has 28 colleges, of which 16 are in Medina.

It offers 89 academic programs and has a strength of students as of In , the university expanded its programs by establishing the College of Science, which offers Engineering and Computer science majors.

It handles domestic flights, while it has scheduled international services to regional destinations in the Middle East.

It is the fourth-busiest airport in Saudi Arabia, handling 8,, passengers in The project also aims to revive the Sunnah where Muhammed used to walk from his house al-Masjid an-Nabawi to Quba'a every Saturday afternoon.

The city of Medina lies at the junction of two of the most important Saudi highways, Highway 60 and Highway Highway 15 connects Medina to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk and Jordan in the north.

Highway 60 connects the city with Yanbu , a port city on the Red Sea in the west and Al Qassim in the east.

The newly established bus system includes 10 lines connecting different regions of the city to Masjid an-Nabawi and the downtown area, and serves around 20, passengers on a daily basis.

Open top buses take passengers on sightseeing trips throughout the day with two lines and 11 destinations, including Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba'a Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn and offers audio tour guidance with 8 different languages.

The project was set to be done in The historic Ottoman railways were shutdown and the railway stations, including the one in Medina, were converted into museums by the Saudi government.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Medina disambiguation. City in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A picture of Madinah from the north of the Prophet's Mosque with the mosque in the foreground and the city in the background.

Mount Uhud. Main articles: Hijrah and Constitution of Medina. Main article: Battle of Uhud. Main article: Battle of the Trench.

Main article: Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia. Main article: Muhammad in Medina.

Main article: The Prophet's Mosque. Main article: Quba'a Mosque. Main article: Masjid al-Qiblatayn. Main article: The Seven Mosques.

Main article: Al-Baqi' Cemetery. See also: Demolition of al-Baqi'. Main article: Islamic eschatology. Main article: Al-Masih ad-Dajjal.

Main article: Haramain high-speed railway. Saudi Arabia portal Islam portal. Retrieved 24 June The Independent. Retrieved 17 January Williams, Khalid,, Waley, M.

For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e. Madain Project. Archived from the original on 6 May Retrieved 6 May Global Volcanism Program.

Smithsonian Institution. Edmund: Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. After a series of earthquakes, a stream of lava appeared, but fortunately flowed to the east of the town and then northwards.

Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press. Princeton University Press. P Following the plunder of Medina in 'when the Prophet's tomb was opened and its jewels and relics sold and distributed among the Wahhabi soldiery'.

London: H. Stationery Office. Jeddah Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 10 December Khan, Muhammad Muhsin.

New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan. Saudi Census. Retrieved 6 February Sabq Newspaper. Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 10 February Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 9 May Lonely Planet.

Al-Yaum Newspaper. Retrieved 24 February Al-Madina Newspaper. Saudi Press Agency. Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 5 February Madinah General Administration of Education.

Taibah University. Al-Riyadh Newspaper. Retrieved 15 November Archived from the original PDF on 13 July Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 25 January Al-Madinah Newspaper.

Retrieved 9 September Madina Buses Official Website. Makkah Newspaper. Retrieved 19 May City Sightseeing Medina Official Website. Al-Watan Newspaper.

Retrieved 31 December Asharq Al-Awsat Newspaper. Retrieved 9 November People and things in the Quran. Note: The names are sorted alphabetically.

Main Saudi Arabian cities by population. Source: cdsi. Medina Region. Capital: Medina. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Sultan Selim II —74 decorated the interior of the mosque with mosaics overlaid with gold.

Sultan Mahmud II built the dome in and in painted it green, this being the accepted colour of Islam.

Sultan Abdülmecid I initiated a project for the virtual reconstruction of the mosque in and completed it in The mosque now includes a new northern court with its surrounding colonnades, all in the same style as the 19th-century building but of concrete instead of stone from the neighbouring hills.

The modernization of Medina has not been so rapid as that of Jiddah , Riyadh , and other Saudi towns. The foundations of the old city wall were found to be lower than the surface of accumulated silt and rubble, but no attempt has been made to examine the excavations from the archaeological point of view.

Nor has any archaeological work been done on the ruined sites of the old Jewish settlements, the largest of which was Yathrib the Lathrippa or Iathrippa of Ptolemy and Stephanus Byzantius , which gave its name to the whole oasis until Islamic times.

The residents of Medina are Arabic -speaking Muslims, most of whom belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. The city is one of the most populous in Saudi Arabia, and it is common for Muslims who make the pilgrimage to settle in the city.

Farming and pottery making are important occupations. To supplement the income derived from accommodating pilgrims, Medina has an economy based on the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and cereals.

The city is especially well known for its date palms, the fruits of which are processed and packaged for export at a plant built in Mechanical pumps for irrigation, in use since Turkish times early in the 20th century, have virtually replaced the old draw wells.

Drinking water is supplied by an aqueduct from a spring at the southern end of the oasis. In addition to the plentiful supply of subsoil water at no great depth, a number of important wadis meet in the vicinity of Medina and bring down torrents of water during the winter rains.

Although Medina was known in early Islamic times for metalworking, jewelry, and armory, those industries were never large-scale, and most activity was connected with agricultural technology until the midth century.

Principal activities came to include automobile repair, brick and tile making, carpentry, and metalworking. Reconstruction of this railroad is studied periodically but has never taken place.

A railway has been built, however, between Medina and Jiddah. Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz International Airport serves passengers flying to and from the city.

The earliest history of Medina is obscure, though it is known that there were Jewish settlers there in pre-Christian times.

But the main influx of Jews would seem to have taken place as the result of their expulsion from Palestine by the Roman emperor Hadrian about ce.

It is probable that the Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj were then in occupation of the oasis, but the Jews were the dominant factor in the population and development of the area by ce.

On September 20, , the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad at Medina, in flight from Mecca, introduced a new chapter into the history of the oasis.

This flight hijrah ; sometimes transliterated Hegira marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Soon thereafter the Jews, at first treated with indulgence , were driven out of all their settlements in Hejaz.

Medina became the administrative capital of the steadily expanding Islamic state, a position it maintained until , when it was superseded in that role by Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphs.

Between and the Turks built the Hejaz railroad to Medina from Damascus in an attempt at strengthening the empire and ensuring Ottoman control over the hajj , the obligatory Muslim pilgrimage to the nearby holy city of Mecca.

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